API Reference

Cheatsheets

Middleware API

createSagaMiddleware(options)

Creates a Redux middleware and connects the Sagas to the Redux Store

  • options: Object - A list of options to pass to the middleware. Currently supported options are:

    • sagaMonitor : SagaMonitor - If a Saga Monitor is provided, the middleware will deliver monitoring events to the monitor.

    • emitter : Used to feed actions from redux to redux-saga (through redux middleware). Emitter is a higher order function, which takes a builtin emitter and returns another emitter.

      Example

      In the following example we create an emitter which "unpacks" array of actions and emits individual actions extracted from the array.

       createSagaMiddleware({
         emitter: emit => action => {
          if (Array.isArray(action)) {
            action.forEach(emit);
            return
          }
          emit(action);
         }
       });
      • logger : Function - defines a custom logger for the middleware. By default, the middleware logs all errors and warnings to the console. This option tells the middleware to send errors/warnings to the provided logger instead. The logger is called with the params (level, ...args). The 1st indicates the level of the log ('info', 'warning' or 'error'). The rest corresponds to the following arguments (You can use args.join(' ') to concatenate all args into a single StringS).
    • onError : Function - if provided, the middleware will call it with uncaught errors from Sagas. useful for sending uncaught exceptions to error tracking services.

Example

Below we will create a function configureStore which will enhance the Store with a new method runSaga. Then in our main module, we will use the method to start the root Saga of the application.

configureStore.js

import createSagaMiddleware from 'redux-saga'
import reducer from './path/to/reducer'

export default function configureStore(initialState) {
  // Note: passing middleware as the last argument to createStore requires redux@>=3.1.0
  const sagaMiddleware = createSagaMiddleware()
  return {
    ...createStore(reducer, initialState, applyMiddleware(/* other middleware, */sagaMiddleware)),
    runSaga: sagaMiddleware.run
  }
}

main.js

import configureStore from './configureStore'
import rootSaga from './sagas'
// ... other imports

const store = configureStore()
store.runSaga(rootSaga)

Notes

See below for more information on the sagaMiddleware.run method.

middleware.run(saga, ...args)

Dynamically run saga. Can be used to run Sagas only after the applyMiddleware phase.

  • saga: Function: a Generator function
  • args: Array<any>: arguments to be provided to saga

The method returns a Task descriptor.

Notes

saga must be a function which returns a Generator Object. The middleware will then iterate over the Generator and execute all yielded Effects.

saga may also start other sagas using the various Effects provided by the library. The iteration process described below is also applied to all child sagas.

In the first iteration, the middleware invokes the next() method to retrieve the next Effect. The middleware then executes the yielded Effect as specified by the Effects API below. Meanwhile, the Generator will be suspended until the effect execution terminates. Upon receiving the result of the execution, the middleware calls next(result) on the Generator passing it the retrieved result as an argument. This process is repeated until the Generator terminates normally or by throwing some error.

If the execution results in an error (as specified by each Effect creator) then the throw(error) method of the Generator is called instead. If the Generator function defines a try/catch surrounding the current yield instruction, then the catch block will be invoked by the underlying Generator runtime. The runtime will also invoke any corresponding finally block.

In the case a Saga is cancelled (either manually or using the provided Effects), the middleware will invoke return() method of the Generator. This will cause the Generator to skip directly to the finally block.

Saga Helpers

Note: the following functions are helper functions built on top of the Effect creators below.

takeEvery(pattern, saga, ...args)

Spawns a saga on each action dispatched to the Store that matches pattern.

  • pattern: String | Array | Function - for more information see docs for take(pattern)

  • saga: Function - a Generator function

  • args: Array<any> - arguments to be passed to the started task. takeEvery will add the incoming action to the argument list (i.e. the action will be the last argument provided to saga)

Example

In the following example, we create a simple task fetchUser. We use takeEvery to start a new fetchUser task on each dispatched USER_REQUESTED action:

import { takeEvery } from `redux-saga/effects`

function* fetchUser(action) {
  ...
}

function* watchFetchUser() {
  yield takeEvery('USER_REQUESTED', fetchUser)
}

Notes

takeEvery is a high-level API built using take and fork. Here is how the helper could be implemented using the low-level Effects

function* takeEvery(pattern, saga, ...args) {
  const task = yield fork(function* () {
    while (true) {
      const action = yield take(pattern)
      yield fork(saga, ...args.concat(action))
    }
  })
  return task
}

takeEvery allows concurrent actions to be handled. In the example above, when a USER_REQUESTED action is dispatched, a new fetchUser task is started even if a previous fetchUser is still pending (for example, the user clicks on a Load User button 2 consecutive times at a rapid rate, the 2nd click will dispatch a USER_REQUESTED action while the fetchUser fired on the first one hasn't yet terminated)

takeEvery doesn't handle out of order responses from tasks. There is no guarantee that the tasks will termiate in the same order they were started. To handle out of order responses, you may consider takeLatest below.

takeLatest(pattern, saga, ...args)

Spawns a saga on each action dispatched to the Store that matches pattern. And automatically cancels any previous saga task started previous if it's still running.

Each time an action is dispatched to the store. And if this action matches pattern, takeLatest starts a new saga task in the background. If a saga task was started previously (on the last action dispatched before the actual action), and if this task is still running, the task will be cancelled.

  • pattern: String | Array | Function - for more information see docs for take(pattern)

  • saga: Function - a Generator function

  • args: Array<any> - arguments to be passed to the started task. takeLatest will add the incoming action to the argument list (i.e. the action will be the last argument provided to saga)

Example

In the following example, we create a simple task fetchUser. We use takeLatest to start a new fetchUser task on each dispatched USER_REQUESTED action. Since takeLatest cancels any pending task started previously, we ensure that if a user triggers multiple consecutive USER_REQUESTED actions rapidly, we'll only conclude with the latest action

import { takeLatest } from `redux-saga/effects`

function* fetchUser(action) {
  ...
}

function* watchLastFetchUser() {
  yield takeLatest('USER_REQUESTED', fetchUser)
}

Notes

takeLatest is a high-level API built using take and fork. Here is how the helper could be implemented using the low-level Effects

function* takeLatest(pattern, saga, ...args) {
  const task = yield fork(function* () {
    let lastTask
    while (true) {
      const action = yield take(pattern)
      if (lastTask)
        yield cancel(lastTask) // cancel is no-op if the task has already terminated

      lastTask = yield fork(saga, ...args.concat(action))
    }
  })
  return task
}

throttle(ms, pattern, saga, ...args)

Spawns a saga on an action dispatched to the Store that matches pattern. After spawning a task it's still accepting incoming actions into the underlaying buffer, keeping at most 1 (the most recent one), but in the same time holding up with spawning new task for ms miliseconds (hence it's name - throttle). Purpose of this is to ignore incoming actions for a given period of time while processing a task.

  • ms: Number - length of a time window in miliseconds during which actions will be ignored after the action starts processing

  • pattern: String | Array | Function - for more information see docs for take(pattern)

  • saga: Function - a Generator function

  • args: Array<any> - arguments to be passed to the started task. throttle will add the incoming action to the argument list (i.e. the action will be the last argument provided to saga)

Example

In the following example, we create a simple task fetchAutocomplete. We use throttle to start a new fetchAutocomplete task on dispatched FETCH_AUTOCOMPLETE action. However since throttle ignores consecutive FETCH_AUTOCOMPLETE for some time, we ensure that user won't flood our server with requests.

import { throttle } from `redux-saga/effects`

function* fetchAutocomplete(action) {
  const autocompleteProposals = yield call(Api.fetchAutocomplete, action.text)
  yield put({type: 'FETCHED_AUTOCOMPLETE_PROPOSALS', proposals: autocompleteProposals})
}

function* throttleAutocomplete() {
  yield throttle(1000, 'FETCH_AUTOCOMPLETE', fetchAutocomplete)
}

Notes

throttle is a high-level API built using take, fork and actionChannel. Here is how the helper could be implemented using the low-level Effects

function* throttle(ms, pattern, task, ...args) {
  const throttleChannel = yield actionChannel(pattern, buffers.sliding(1))

  while (true) {
    const action = yield take(throttleChannel)
    yield fork(task, ...args, action)
    yield call(delay, ms)
  }
}

Effect creators

Notes:

  • Each function below returns a plain JavaScript object and does not perform any execution.
  • The execution is performed by the middleware during the Iteration process described above.
  • The middleware examines each Effect description and performs the appropriate action.

take(pattern)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to wait for a specified action on the Store. The Generator is suspended until an action that matches pattern is dispatched.

pattern is interpreted using the following rules:

  • If take is called with no arguments or '*' all dispatched actions are matched (e.g. take() will match all actions)

  • If it is a function, the action is matched if pattern(action) is true (e.g. take(action => action.entities) will match all actions having a (truthy) entitiesfield.)

    Note: if the pattern function has toString defined on it, action.type will be tested against pattern.toString() instead. This is useful if you're using an action creator library like redux-act or redux-actions.

  • If it is a String, the action is matched if action.type === pattern (e.g. take(INCREMENT_ASYNC)

  • If it is an array, each item in the array is matched with beforementioned rules, so the mixed array of strings and function predicates is supported. The most common use case is an array of strings though, so that action.type is matched against all items in the array (e.g. take([INCREMENT, DECREMENT]) and that would match either actions of type INCREMENT or DECREMENT).

The middleware provides a special action END. If you dispatch the END action, then all Sagas blocked on a take Effect will be terminated regardless of the specified pattern. If the terminated Saga has still some forked tasks which are still running, it will wait for all the child tasks to terminate before terminating the Task.

take.maybe(pattern)

Same as take(pattern) but does not automatically terminate the Saga on an END action. Instead all Sagas blocked on a take Effect will get the END object.

Notes

take.maybe got it name from the FP analogy - it's like instead of having a return type of ACTION (with automatic handling) we can have a type of Maybe(ACTION) so we can handle both cases:

  • case when there is a Just(ACTION) (we have an action)
  • the case of NOTHING (channel was closed*). i.e. we need some way to map over END

  • internally all dispatched actions are going through the stdChannel which is geting closed when dispatch(END) happens

take(channel)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to wait for a specified message from the provided Channel. If the channel is already closed, then the Generator will immediately terminate following the same process described above for take(pattern).

take.maybe(channel)

Same as take(channel) but does not automatically terminate the Saga on an END action. Instead all Sagas blocked on a take Effect will get the END object. See more here

put(action)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to dispatch an action to the Store. This effect is non-blocking and any errors that are thrown downstream (e.g. in a reducer) will not bubble back into the saga.

put.resolve(action)

Just like put but the effect is blocking (if promise is returned from dispatch it will wait for its resolution) and will bubble up errors from downstream.

put(channel, action)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to put an action into the provided channel.

This effect is blocking if the put is not buffered but immediately consumed by takers. If an error is thrown in any of these takers it will bubble back into the saga.

call(fn, ...args)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to call the function fn with args as arguments.

  • fn: Function - A Generator function, or normal function which either returns a Promise as result, or any other value.

  • args: Array<any> - An array of values to be passed as arguments to fn

Notes

fn can be either a normal or a Generator function.

The middleware invokes the function and examines its result.

If the result is an Iterator object, the middleware will run that Generator function, just like it did with the startup Generators (passed to the middleware on startup). The parent Generator will be suspended until the child Generator terminates normally, in which case the parent Generator is resumed with the value returned by the child Generator. Or until the child aborts with some error, in which case an error will be thrown inside the parent Generator.

If the result is a Promise, the middleware will suspend the Generator until the Promise is resolved, in which case the Generator is resumed with the resolved value. or until the Promise is rejected, in which case an error is thrown inside the Generator.

If the result is not an Iterator object nor a Promise, the middleware will immediately return that value back to the saga, so that it can resume its execution synchronously.

When an error is thrown inside the Generator. If it has a try/catch block surrounding the current yield instruction, the control will be passed to the catch block. Otherwise, the Generator aborts with the raised error, and if this Generator was called by another Generator, the error will propagate to the calling Generator.

call([context, fn], ...args)

Same as call(fn, ...args) but supports passing a this context to fn. This is useful to invoke object methods.

call([context, fnName], ...args)

Same as call([context, fn], ...args) but supports passing a fn as string. Useful for invoking object's methods, i.e. yield call([localStorage, 'getItem'], 'redux-saga')

apply(context, fn, [args])

Alias for call([context, fn], ...args).

cps(fn, ...args)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to invoke fn as a Node style function.

  • fn: Function - a Node style function. i.e. a function which accepts in addition to its arguments, an additional callback to be invoked by fn when it terminates. The callback accepts two parameters, where the first parameter is used to report errors while the second is used to report successful results

  • args: Array<any> - an array to be passed as arguments for fn

Notes

The middleware will perform a call fn(...arg, cb). The cb is a callback passed by the middleware to fn. If fn terminates normally, it must call cb(null, result) to notify the middleware of a successful result. If fn encounters some error, then it must call cb(error) in order to notify the middleware that an error has occurred.

The middleware remains suspended until fn terminates.

cps([context, fn], ...args)

Supports passing a this context to fn (object method invocation)

fork(fn, ...args)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to perform a non-blocking call on fn

Arguments

  • fn: Function - A Generator function, or normal function which returns a Promise as result

  • args: Array<any> - An array of values to be passed as arguments to fn

returns a Task object.

Note

fork, like call, can be used to invoke both normal and Generator functions. But, the calls are non-blocking, the middleware doesn't suspend the Generator while waiting for the result of fn. Instead as soon as fn is invoked, the Generator resumes immediately.

fork, alongside race, is a central Effect for managing concurrency between Sagas.

The result of yield fork(fn ...args) is a Task object. An object with some useful methods and properties.

All forked tasks are attached to their parents. When the parent terminates the execution of its own body of instructions, it will wait for all forked tasks to terminate before returning.

Errors from child tasks automatically bubble up to their parents. If any forked task raises an uncaught error, then the parent task will abort with the child Error, and the whole Parent's execution tree (i.e. forked tasks + the main task represented by the parent's body if it's still running) will be cancelled.

Cancellation of a forked Task will automatically cancel all forked tasks that are still executing. It'll also cancel the current Effect where the cancelled task was blocked (if any).

If a forked task fails synchronously (ie: fails immediately after its execution before performing any async operation), then no Task is returned, instead the parent will be aborted as soon as possible (since both parent and child executes in parallel, the parent will abort as soon as it takes notice of the child failure).

To create detached forks, use spawn instead.

fork([context, fn], ...args)

Supports invoking forked functions with a this context

spawn(fn, ...args)

Same as fork(fn, ...args) but creates a detached task. A detached task remains independent from its parent and acts like a top-level task. The parent will not wait for detached tasks to terminate before returning and all events which may affect the parent or the detached task are completely independents (error, cancellation).

spawn([context, fn], ...args)

Supports spawning functions with a this context

join(task)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to wait for the result of a previously forked task.

  • task: Task - A Task object returned by a previous fork

Notes

join will resolve to the same outcome of the joined task (success or error). If the joined task is cancelled, the cancellation will also propagate to the Saga executing the join effect. Similarly, any potential callers of those joiners will be cancelled as well.

join(...tasks)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to wait for the results of previously forked tasks.

  • tasks: Array<Task> - A Task is the object returned by a previous fork

Notes

It simply wraps the array of tasks in join effects, roughly becoming the equivalent of yield tasks.map(t => join(t)).

cancel(task)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to cancel a previously forked task.

  • task: Task - A Task object returned by a previous fork

Notes

To cancel a running task, the middleware will invoke return on the underlying Generator object. This will cancel the current Effect in the task and jump to the finally block (if defined).

Inside the finally block, you can execute any cleanup logic or dispatch some action to keep the store in a consistent state (e.g. reset the state of a spinner to false when an ajax request is cancelled). You can check inside the finally block if a Saga was cancelled by issuing a yield cancelled().

Cancellation propagates downward to child sagas. When cancelling a task, the middleware will also cancel the current Effect (where the task is currently blocked). If the current Effect is a call to another Saga, it will be also cancelled. When cancelling a Saga, all attached forks (sagas forked using yield fork()) will be cancelled. This means that cancellation effectively affects the whole execution tree that belongs to the cancelled task.

cancel is a non-blocking Effect. i.e. the Saga executing it will resume immediately after performing the cancellation.

For functions which return Promise results, you can plug your own cancellation logic by attaching a [CANCEL] to the promise.

The following example shows how to attach cancellation logic to a Promise result:

import { CANCEL } from 'redux-saga'
import { fork, cancel } from 'redux-saga/effects'

function myApi() {
  const promise = myXhr(...)

  promise[CANCEL] = () => myXhr.abort()
  return promise
}

function* mySaga() {

  const task = yield fork(myApi)

  // ... later
  // will call promise[CANCEL] on the result of myApi
  yield cancel(task)
}

redux-saga will automatically cancel jqXHR objects using their abort method.

cancel(...tasks)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to cancel previously forked tasks.

  • tasks: Array<Task> - A Task is the object returned by a previous fork

Notes

It simply wraps the array of tasks in cancel effects, roughly becoming the equivalent of yield tasks.map(t => cancel(t)).

cancel()

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to cancel a task in which it has been yielded (self cancellation). It allows to reuse destructor-like logic inside a finally blocks for both outer (cancel(task)) and self (cancel()) cancellations.

Example

function* deleteRecord({ payload }) {
  try {
    const { confirm, deny } = yield call(prompt);
    if (confirm) {
      yield put(actions.deleteRecord.confirmed())
    }
    if (deny) {
      yield cancel()
    }
  } catch(e) {
    // handle failure
  } finally {
    if (yield cancelled()) {
      // shared cancellation logic
      yield put(actions.deleteRecord.cancel(payload))
    }
  }
}

select(selector, ...args)

Creates an effect that instructs the middleware to invoke the provided selector on the current Store's state (i.e. returns the result of selector(getState(), ...args)).

  • selector: Function - a function (state, ...args) => args. It takes the current state and optionally some arguments and returns a slice of the current Store's state

  • args: Array<any> - optional arguments to be passed to the selector in addition of getState.

If select is called without argument (i.e. yield select()) then the effect is resolved with the entire state (the same result of a getState() call).

It's important to note that when an action is dispatched to the store, the middleware first forwards the action to the reducers and then notifies the Sagas. This means that when you query the Store's State, you get the State after the action has been applied. However, this behavior is only guaranteed if all subsequent middlewares call next(action) synchronously. If any subsequent middleware calls next(action) asynchronously (which is unusual but possible), then the sagas will get the state from before the action is applied. Therefore it is recommended to review the source of each subsequent middleware to ensure it calls next(action) synchronously, or else ensure that redux-saga is the last middleware in the call chain.

Notes

Preferably, a Saga should be autonomous and should not depend on the Store's state. This makes it easy to modify the state implementation without affecting the Saga code. A saga should preferably depend only on its own internal control state when possible. But sometimes, one could find it more convenient for a Saga to query the state instead of maintaining the needed data by itself (for example, when a Saga duplicates the logic of invoking some reducer to compute a state that was already computed by the Store).

For example, suppose we have this state shape in our application:

state = {
  cart: {...}
}

We can create a selector, i.e. a function which knows how to extract the cart data from the State:

./selectors

export const getCart = state => state.cart

Then we can use that selector from inside a Saga using the select Effect:

./sagas.js

import { take, fork, select } from 'redux-saga/effects'
import { getCart } from './selectors'

function* checkout() {
  // query the state using the exported selector
  const cart = yield select(getCart)

  // ... call some API endpoint then dispatch a success/error action
}

export default function* rootSaga() {
  while (true) {
    yield take('CHECKOUT_REQUEST')
    yield fork(checkout)
  }
}

checkout can get the needed information directly by using select(getCart). The Saga is coupled only with the getCart selector. If we have many Sagas (or React Components) that needs to access the cart slice, they will all be coupled to the same function getCart. And if we now change the state shape, we need only to update getCart.

actionChannel(pattern, [buffer])

Creates an effect that instructs the middleware to queue the actions matching pattern using an event channel. Optionally, you can provide a buffer to control buffering of the queued actions.

pattern: - see API for take(pattern) buffer: Buffer - a Buffer object

Example

The following code creates channel to buffer all USER_REQUEST actions. Note that even the Saga maybe blocked on the call effect. All actions that come while it's blocked are automatically buffered. This causes the Saga to execute the API calls one at a time

import { actionChannel, call } from 'redux-saga/effects'
import api from '...'

function* takeOneAtMost() {
  const chan = yield actionChannel('USER_REQUEST')
  while (true) {
    const {payload} = yield take(chan)
    yield call(api.getUser, payload)
  }
}

flush(channel)

Creates an effect that instructs the middleware to flush all buffered items from the channel. Flushed items are returned back to the saga, so they can be utilized if needed.

  • channel: Channel - a Channel Object.

Example


function* saga() {
  const chan = yield actionChannel('ACTION')

  try {
    while (true) {
      const action = yield take(chan)
      // ...
    }
  } finally {
    const actions = yield flush(chan)
    // ...
  }

}

cancelled()

Creates an effect that instructs the middleware to return whether this generator has been cancelled. Typically you use this Effect in a finally block to run Cancellation specific code

Example


function* saga() {
  try {
    // ...
  } finally {
    if (yield cancelled()) {
      // logic that should execute only on Cancellation
    }
    // logic that should execute in all situations (e.g. closing a channel)
  }
}

setContext(props)

Creates an effect that instructs the middleware to update it's own context. This effect extends saga's context instead of replacing it.

getContext(prop)

Creates an effect that instructs the middleware to return a specific property of saga's context.

Effect combinators

race(effects)

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to run a Race between multiple Effects (this is similar to how Promise.race([...]) behaves).

effects: Object - a dictionary Object of the form {label: effect, ...}

Example

The following example runs a race between two effects:

  1. A call to a function fetchUsers which returns a Promise
  2. A CANCEL_FETCH action which may be eventually dispatched on the Store
import { take, call, race } from `redux-saga/effects`
import fetchUsers from './path/to/fetchUsers'

function* fetchUsersSaga {
  const { response, cancel } = yield race({
    response: call(fetchUsers),
    cancel: take(CANCEL_FETCH)
  })
}

If call(fetchUsers) resolves (or rejects) first, the result of race will be an object with a single keyed object {response: result} where result is the resolved result of fetchUsers.

If an action of type CANCEL_FETCH is dispatched on the Store before fetchUsers completes, the result will be a single keyed object {cancel: action}, where action is the dispatched action.

Notes

When resolving a race, the middleware automatically cancels all the losing Effects.

all([...effects]) - parallel effects

Creates an Effect description that instructs the middleware to run multiple Effects in parallel and wait for all of them to complete. It's quite the corresponding API to standard Promise#all.

Example

The following example runs two blocking calls in parallel:

import { fetchCustomers, fetchProducts } from './path/to/api'

function* mySaga() {
  const [customers, products] = yield all([
    call(fetchCustomers),
    call(fetchProducts)
  ])
}

all(effects)

The same as all([...effects]) but let's you to pass in a dictionary object of effects with labels, just like race(effects)

effects: Object - a dictionary Object of the form {label: effect, ...}

Example

The following example runs two blocking calls in parallel:

import { fetchCustomers, fetchProducts } from './path/to/api'

function* mySaga() {
  const { customers, products } = yield all({
    customers: call(fetchCustomers),
    products: call(fetchProducts)
  })
}

Notes

When running Effects in parallel, the middleware suspends the Generator until one of the following occurs:

  • All the Effects completed with success: resumes the Generator with an array containing the results of all Effects.

  • One of the Effects was rejected before all the effects complete: throws the rejection error inside the Generator.

Interfaces

Task

The Task interface specifies the result of running a Saga using fork, middleware.run or runSaga.

method return value
task.isRunning() true if the task hasn't yet returned or thrown an error
task.isCancelled() true if the task has been cancelled
task.result() task return value. `undefined` if task is still running
task.error() task thrown error. `undefined` if task is still running
task.done a Promise which is either:
  • resolved with task's return value
  • rejected with task's thrown error
task.cancel() Cancels the task (If it is still running)

Channel

A channel is an object used to send and receive messages between tasks. Messages from senders are queued until an interested receiver request a message, and registered receiver is queued until a message is available.

Every channel has an underlying buffer which defines the buffering strategy (fixed size, dropping, sliding)

The Channel interface defines 3 methods: take, put and close

Channel.take(callback): used to register a taker. The take is resolved using the following rules

  • If the channel has buffered messages, then callback will be invoked with the next message from the underlying buffer (using buffer.take())
  • If the channel is closed and there are no buffered messages, then callback is invoked with END
  • Otherwisecallback will be queued until a message is put into the channel

Channel.put(message): Used to put message on the buffer. The put will be handled using the following rules

  • If the channel is closed, then the put will have no effect.
  • If there are pending takers, then invoke the oldest taker with the message.
  • Otherwise put the message on the underlying buffer

Channel.flush(callback): Used to extract all buffered messages from the channel. The flush is resolved using the following rules

  • If the channel is closed and there are no buffered messages, then callback is invoked with END
  • Otherwise callback is invoked with all buffered messages.

Channel.close(): closes the channel which means no more puts will be allowed. All pending takers will be invoked with END.

Buffer

Used to implement the buffering strategy for a channel. The Buffer interface defines 3 methods: isEmpty, put and take

  • isEmpty(): returns true if there are no messages on the buffer. A channel calls this method whenever a new taker is registered
  • put(message): used to put new message in the buffer. Note the Buffer can chose to not store the message (e.g. a dropping buffer can drop any new message exceeding a given limit)
  • take() used to retrieve any buffered message. Note the behavior of this method has to be consistent with isEmpty

SagaMonitor

Used by the middleware to dispatch monitoring events. Actually the middleware dispatches 5 events:

  • When an effect is triggered (via yield someEffect) the middleware invokes sagaMonitor.effectTriggered

  • If the effect is resolved with success the middleware invokes sagaMonitor.effectResolved

  • If the effect is rejected with an error the middleware invokes sagaMonitor.effectRejected

  • If the effect is cancelled the middleware invokes sagaMonitor.effectCancelled

  • Finally, the middleware invokes sagaMonitor.actionDispatched when a Redux action is dispatched.

Below the signature for each method

  • effectTriggered(options) : where options is an object with the following fields

    • effectId : Number - Unique ID assigned to the yielded effect

    • parentEffectId : Number - ID of the parent Effect. In the case of a race or parallel effect, all effects yielded inside will have the direct race/parallel effect as a parent. In case of a top-level effect, the parent will be the containing Saga

    • label : String - In case of a race effect, all child effects will be assigned as label the corresponding keys of the object passed to race

    • effect : Object - the yielded effect itself

  • effectResolved(effectId, result)

    • effectId : Number - The ID of the yielded effect

    • result : any - The result of the successful resolution of the effect. In case of fork or spawn effects, the result will be a Task object.

  • effectRejected(effectId, error)

    • effectId : Number - The ID of the yielded effect

    • error : any - Error raised with the rejection of the effect

  • effectCancelled(effectId)

    • effectId : Number - The ID of the yielded effect
  • actionDispatched(action)

    • action : Object - The dispatched Redux action. If the action was dispatched by a Saga then the action will have a property SAGA_ACTION set to true (SAGA_ACTION can be imported from redux-saga/utils).

External API


runSaga(options, saga, ...args)

Allows starting sagas outside the Redux middleware environment. Useful if you want to connect a Saga to external input/output, other than store actions.

runSaga returns a Task object. Just like the one returned from a fork effect.

  • options: Object - currently supported options are:

    • subscribe(callback): Function - A function which accepts a callback and returns an unsubscribe function

      • callback(input): Function - callback(provided by runSaga) used to subscribe to input events. subscribe must support registering multiple subscriptions.
        • input: any - argument passed by subscribe to callback (see Notes below)
  • saga: Function - a Generator function

  • args: Array<any> - arguments to be provided to saga

Notes

The {subscribe, dispatch} is used to fulfill take and put Effects. This defines the Input/Output interface of the Saga.

subscribe is used to fulfill take(PATTERN) effects. It must call callback every time it has an input to dispatch (e.g. on every mouse click if the Saga is connected to DOM click events). Each time subscribe emits an input to its callbacks, if the Saga is blocked on a take effect, and if the take pattern matches the currently incoming input, the Saga is resumed with that input.

dispatch is used to fulfill put effects. Each time the Saga emits a yield put(output), dispatch is invoked with output.

Utils

channel([buffer])

A factory method that can be used to create Channels. You can optionally pass it a buffer to control how the channel buffers the messages.

By default, if no buffer is provided, the channel will queue incoming messages up to 10 until interested takers are registered. The default buffering will deliver message using a FIFO strategy: a new taker will be delivered the oldest message in the buffer.

eventChannel(subscribe, [buffer], [matcher])

Creates channel that will subscribe to an event source using the subscribe method. Incoming events from the event source will be queued in the channel until interested takers are registered.

  • subscribe: Function used to subscribe to the underlying event source. The function must return an unsubscribe function to terminate the subscription.

  • buffer: Buffer optional Buffer object to buffer messages on this channel. If not provided messages will not buffered on this channel.

  • matcher: Function optional predicate function (any => Boolean) to filter incoming messages. Only messages accepted by the matcher will be put on the channel.

To notify the channel that the event source has terminated, you can notify the provided subscriber with an END

Example

In the following example we create an event channel that will subscribe to a setInterval

const countdown = (secs) => {
  return eventChannel(emitter => {
      const iv = setInterval(() => {
        console.log('countdown', secs)
        secs -= 1
        if (secs > 0) {
          emitter(secs)
        } else {
          emitter(END)
          clearInterval(iv)
          console.log('countdown terminated')
        }
      }, 1000);
      return () => {
        clearInterval(iv)
        console.log('countdown cancelled')
      }
    }
  )
}

buffers

Provides some common buffers

  • buffers.none(): no buffering, new messages will be lost if there are no pending takers

  • buffers.fixed(limit): new messages will be buffered up to limit. Overflow will raises an Error. Omitting a limit value will result in a limit of 10.

  • buffers.expanding(initialSize): like fixed but Overflow will cause the buffer to expand dynamically.

  • buffers.dropping(limit): same as fixed but Overflow will silently drop the messages.

  • buffers.sliding(limit): same as fixed but Overflow will insert the new message at the end and drop the oldest message in the buffer.

delay(ms, [val])

Returns a Promise that will resolve after ms milliseconds with val.

cloneableGenerator(generatorFunc)

Takes a generator function (function*) and returns a generator function. All generators instanciated from this function will be cloneable. For testing purpose only.

Example

This is useful when you want to test different branch of a saga without having to replay the actions that lead to it.


function* oddOrEven() {
  // some stuff are done here
  yield 1;
  yield 2;
  yield 3;

  const userInput = yield 'enter a number';
  if (userInput % 2 === 0) {
    yield 'even';
  } else {
    yield 'odd'
  }
}

test('my oddOrEven saga', assert => {
  const data = {};
  data.gen = cloneableGenerator(oddOrEven)();

  assert.equal(
    data.gen.next().value,
    1,
    'it should yield 1'
  );

  assert.equal(
    data.gen.next().value,
    2,
    'it should yield 2'
  );

  assert.equal(
    data.gen.next().value,
    3,
    'it should yield 3'
  );

  assert.equal(
    data.gen.next().value,
    'enter a number',
    'it should ask for a number'
  );

  assert.test('even number is given', a => {
    // we make a clone of the generator before giving the number;
    data.clone = data.gen.clone();

    a.equal(
      data.gen.next(2).value,
      'even',
      'it should yield "event"'
    );

    a.equal(
      data.gen.next().done,
      true,
      'it should be done'
    );

    a.end();
  });

  assert.test('odd number is given', a => {

    a.equal(
      data.clone.next(1).value,
      'odd',
      'it should yield "odd"'
    );

    a.equal(
      data.clone.next().done,
      true,
      'it should be done'
    );

    a.end();
  });

  assert.end();
});

createMockTask()

Returns an object that mocks a task. For testing purposes only. See Task Cancellation docs for more information. )

Cheatsheets

Blocking / Non-blocking

Name Blocking
takeEvery No
takeLatest No
throttle No
take Yes
take(channel) Sometimes (see API reference)
take.maybe Yes
put No
put.resolve Yes
put(channel, action) No
call Yes
apply Yes
cps Yes
fork No
spawn No
join Yes
cancel Yes
select No
actionChannel No
flush Yes
cancelled Yes
race Yes
[...effects] Blocks only if there is a blocking effect in the array

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